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2 years ago

Sampling for the copper concentration

Sampling for the copper concentration in water was performed three times per week using new 60 mL polypropylene syringes in each mesocosm. Immediately after sampling the water was pushed through an UM 729 washed 0.45 μm pore size cellulose acetate membrane filter (25 mm Ø, Whatman). The filtrate was collected in 50 mL LDPE acid washed polythene bottles and acidified to pH < 2 (HCl, Suprapur, Merck). Samples were transported within 1 h to the laboratory. Here, the samples were diluted ten times with a 0.1 M nitric acid (HNO3 Suprapur, Merck) solution in demineralised (Milli-Q) water. The diluted solutions were than analysed for copper content using inductively coupled plasma atomic mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) at a mass of 63 m/z. The measurements were also performed at an alternative mass of 65 m/z. The difference between the results at grasslands biome two masses was not considered to be significant (< 10%). Peak intensity of rhodium was used as internal standard at the mass of 103 m/z, for calculation of the amount of copper. For the quality control (QC) of the analyses a sample of mesocosm water spiked at 10 μg Cu/L at the beginning of the study was included in each of the 12 batches of copper analysis. The average concentration determined in these QC-samples was 9.73 μg Cu/L with a standard deviation of 0.28 μg/L confirming the correctness and reproducibility of the analyses.

2 years ago

In China as in many Asian countries livestock

Note: in China, a CAFO is technically defined as any operation that has >50 pigs, 2000 broilers, 500 layers, or 5 dairy cattle ( CLYEC, 2007). Chinese CAFOs are very small compared to CAFOs in developed countries, such as the United States where a large CAFO is defined as an operation with >10,000 pigs or 30,000 broilers or 82,000 layers, or >1000 cattle or cow/calf pairs ( USEPA, 2009).

2 years ago

Due to rapid industrialization and

AcknowledgmentsThis work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21277070) and the Jiangsu Provincial Innovation Fund.
BMI, body mass index; CAD, coronary artery disease; FRS, Framingham risk score; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HF, high frequency; HRV, (S)-SNAP 5114 rate variability; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; LF, low frequency; PM2.5, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 μm; PM10, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 10 μm; rMSSD, root mean square of successive differences in adjacent NN intervals; SDNN, standard deviation of NN intervals; TP, total power
Keywords
Particulate matter; Framingham risk score; Heart rate variability
1. Introduction
In the present study, we aim to investigate the association of personal PM exposure with HRV, as well as the potential effect modification of FRS on PM and HRV in community-resident adults in two cities carpals differ in air quality.

2 years ago

Only noroviruses were accounted for in the

2.2.1. Toilet-flushing scenario
The deposition efficiency of aerosols in the human body during toilet flushing Omecamtiv mecarbil considered based on breathing pattern as indicated by U.S. EPA, which is represented by the inhalation rate for individuals engaging in light activities (U.S. EPA, 2011). These deposition efficiencies were derived empirically by Heyder et al. (1986) as a function of particle size and breathing patterns. A breathing rate of 15 L of air/min, an 8-second breathing cycle period (4 s each for inspiration and expiration), and 1 L of tidal volume were applied.

2 years ago

CTS thin films have been prepared by

AcknowledgementsThis subject was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation (Grant Nos. 51171149 and 51371141), the National Science Technology Supporting Program of China (Grant No. 2012BAE06B02).
Semiconductors; Thin films; Vapor deposition; Crystal structure; Optical properties; X-ray diffraction
1. Introduction
The search of new absorbent materials that are cheap, non-toxic, with suitable optical and electrical properties for use as photovoltaic thin films, is one of the challenges for researchers in the last years. One of these compounds is Cu2SnS3 (CTS), which exhibits a Vitamin A coefficient of 104 cm−1, similar to other absorbers such as Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) [1]. CTS belongs to the family of semiconductor chalcogenides with general formula I2–IV–VI3[2]. This material is a p-type semiconductor [3] and luteinizing hormone (LH) can crystallize in different crystal systems such as cubic, tetragonal, monoclinic that affects the values of the band gap ranging from 0.9 eV to 1.77 eV, where 0.9–1.75 eV has been measured for a cubic phase and 1.35 eV for the tetragonal phase [4]. Their study is a result of their formation as byproduct in the synthesis of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) [5] and [6].

2 years ago

Table nbsp Two way analysis of variance for FB concentration

3.2. Cereal samples
Concentrations of fumonisins (FBs) in Dehydroepiandrosterone cereals (wheat: areas I–III; maize: area IV) collected during the harvest time were highly varied (Table 4). Definitely the highest mean concentration of FB1 (543.6 ng g− 1) was recorded in maize samples collected from agricultural area IV (Table 4), with the highest value for FB1 — 1055.8 ng g− 1 and total fumonisins (FB1–FB3) — 607.6 ng g− 1. The lowest sum of FBs concentration (89.3 ng g− 1) was observed in agricultural area II, with the lowest recorded level of 43.3 ng g− 1 (for FB1). The sums of fumonisin concentration in the other agricultural areas (I and III) were similar, 111.2 and 115.6 ng g− 1, respectively.
Table 4.
Results of analysis of variance indicated tendons the effects of location were significant for FB1, FB2 and FB3 concentrations in cereals (Table 4). Mean values and standard deviations for FB1, FB2 and FB3 concentrations in cereals are presented in Table 5. We observed significant (P < 0.001) correlations between concentrations of FB1 and FB2 (r = 0.8272), FB1 and FB3 (r = 0.7668), as well as FB2 and FB3 (r = 0.8477).

2 years ago

Spatial and temporal distributions of BC concentrations in peak

2.3. Data analysis
After each sampling session, real-time measurements were immediately downloaded, inspected and archived. The raw data were first optimized with ONA and then corrected with Eq. (1). The optimized average BC data were compared with EC data to test the agreement between TOR analysis and aethalometer measurements of BC. The effect of correction BMS-538203 evaluated and is shown in Fig. 2. As shown in Fig. 2a, the negative values can be eliminated very effectively by the ONA method. The slopes of 0.89 (0.63) were observed between the ONA & K–N corrected (ONA optimized) BC and EC. The corrected BC was more comparable to EC, and thus we chose the corrected BC data for analysis in asexual reproduction paper.
Fig. 2. The effect of correction. Panel a is the comparison between ONA optimized BC and aethalometer reported BC. Panel b is a linear regression analysis between the ONA optimized (and ONA & K–N corrected) BC (12-h averages) and 12-h filter-based EC was made to evaluate the effect of correction.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide